A valley valve and electron beam splitter
Developing alternative paradigms of electronics beyond silicon technology requires the exploration of fundamentally new physical mechanisms, such as the valley-specific phenomena in hexagonal two-dimensional materials. We realize ballistic valley Hall kink states in bilayer graphene and demonstrate gate-controlled current transmission in a four-kink router device. The operations of a waveguide, a valve, and a tunable electron beam splitter are demonstrated. The valley valve exploits the valley-momentum locking of the kink states and reaches an on/off ratio of 8 at zero magnetic field. A magnetic field enables a full-range tunable coherent beam splitter. These results pave a path to building a scalable, coherent quantum transportation network based on the kink states.
Mutations in LZTR1 drive human disease by dysregulating RAS ubiquitination
The leucine zipper–like transcriptional regulator 1 (LZTR1) protein, an adaptor for cullin 3 (CUL3) ubiquitin ligase complex, is implicated in human disease, yet its mechanism of action remains unknown. We found that Lztr1 haploinsufficiency in mice recapitulates Noonan syndrome phenotypes, whereas LZTR1 loss in Schwann cells drives dedifferentiation and proliferation. By trapping LZTR1 complexes from intact mammalian cells, we identified the guanosine triphosphatase RAS as a substrate for the LZTR1-CUL3 complex.
Quantifying the contribution of recessive coding variation to developmental disorders
We estimated the genome-wide contribution of recessive coding variation in 6040 families from the Deciphering Developmental Disorders study. The proportion of cases attributable to recessive coding variants was 3.6% in patients of European ancestry, compared with 50% explained by de novo coding mutations. It was higher (31%) in patients with Pakistani ancestry, owing to elevated autozygosity. Half of this recessive burden is attributable to known genes.
Open-source discovery of chemical leads for next-generation chemoprotective antimalarials
To discover leads for next-generation chemoprotective antimalarial drugs, we tested more than 500,000 compounds for their ability to inhibit liver-stage development of luciferase-expressing Plasmodium spp. parasites (681 compounds showed a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of less than 1 micromolar). Cluster analysis identified potent and previously unreported scaffold families as well as other series previously associated with chemoprophylaxis.